MRI in Practice

 Taschenbuch
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ISBN-13:
9781119391968
Einband:
Taschenbuch
Erscheinungsdatum:
26.10.2018
Seiten:
395
Autor:
Catherine Westbrook
Gewicht:
907 g
Format:
254x202x22 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Preface to the Fifth Edition

Acknowledgments

List of Acronyms

Equation symbols

About the Companion Website

Chapter 1 Basic principles

Introduction

Atomic structure

Motion in the atom

MR active nuclei

The hydrogen nucleus

Alignment

Net magnetic vector (NMV)

Precession and precessional (Larmor) frequency

Precessional phase

Resonance

MR signal

Pulse timing parameters

Further reading

Chapter 2 Image weighting and contrast

Introduction

Image contrast

Relaxation

T1 recovery

T2 decay

Contrast mechanisms

Relaxation in different tissues

T1 contrast

T2 contrast

Proton density contrast

Weighting

Other contrast mechanisms

Further reading

Chapter 3 Spin echo pulse sequences

Introduction

RF rephasing

Conventional spin echo

Fast or turbo spin echo FSE/TSE)

Inversion recovery (IR)

Short tau inversion recovery (STIR)

Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)

Further Reading

Chapter 4 Gradient echo pulse sequences

Introduction

Variable flip angle

Gradient rephasing

Weighting in gradient echo pulse sequences

Weighting mechanism 1 - extrinsic contrast parameters

Weighting mechanism 2 - the steady state

Weighing mechanism 3 - residual transverse magnetization

Coherent or rewound gradient echo

Incoherent or spoiled gradient echo

Reverse-echo gradient echo

Balanced gradient echo

Fast gradient echo

Echo planar imaging (EPI)

Further reading

Chapter 5 Spatial encoding

Introduction

Mechanism of gradients

Gradient axes

Slice selection

Frequency encoding

Phase encoding

Sampling

Data collection and image formation

Bringing it all together - pulse sequence timing

Further reading

Chapter 6 k-space

Introduction

Part 1 - what is k-space?

Part 2 - how are data acquired and how are images created from this data?

Part 3 -some important facts about k-space

Part 4: how do pulse sequences fill k-space?

Part 5: options that fill k-space

Further reading

Chapter 7 Protocol optimization

Introduction

Signal to noise ratio (SNR)

Contrast to noise ratio (CNR)

Spatial resolution

Scan time

Trade-offs

Protocol development and modification

Further reading

Chapter 8 Artefacts

Introduction

Phase mismapping

Aliasing

Chemical shift artefact

Out of phase signal cancellation

Magnetic susceptibility artefact

Truncation artefact

Cross-excitation/cross-talk

Zipper artefact

Shading artefact

Moiré artefact

Magic angle

Equipment faults

Flow artefacts

Flow-dependent (non-contrast enhanced) angiography

Black-blood imaging

Phase contrast MRA

Further reading

Chapter 9 Instrumentation

Introduction

Magnetism

Scanner configurations

Magnet system

Magnet shielding

Shim system

Gradient system

RF system

Patient transport system

Computer system and graphic user interface

Further reading

Chapter 10 MRI safety

Introduction (and disclaimer)

Definitions used in MRI safety

Psychological effects

The spatially-varying static field

Electromagnetic (radiofrequency) fields

Time-Varying Gradient Magnetic Fields

Cryogen safety

Cryogen safety

Additional resources

Further reading

Appendix

Glossary

Index
MRI in Practice continues to be the number one reference book and study guide for the registry review examination for MRI offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). This latest edition offers in-depth chapters covering all core areas, including: basic principles, image weighting and contrast, spin and gradient echo pulse sequences, spatial encoding, k-space, protocol optimization, artefacts, instrumentation, and MRI safety.
* The leading MRI reference book and study guide.
* Now with a greater focus on the physics behind MRI.
* Offers, for the first time, equations and their explanations and scan tips.
* Brand new chapters on MRI equipment, vascular imaging and safety.
* Presented in full color, with additional illustrations and high-quality MRI images to aid understanding.
* Includes refined, updated and expanded content throughout, along with more learning tips and practical applications.
* Features a new glossary.

MRI in Practice is an important text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists, and other students and professionals working within imaging, including medical physicists and nurses.